Hemifacial spasm (HFS) is a rare condition characterized by transient or persistent facial contraction due to spontaneous discharges in the facial nerve secondary to a vascular compression in most cases. This pathology can be unilateral or bilateral, usually affect mid-age females. Patients refractory to medical therapy are well suitable for surgery.
Indirect carotid-cavernous fistulas (iCCFs) are shunts between meningeal branches of the internal carotid and/or the external carotid arteries and the cavernous sinus. They account for 83% of all carotid-cavernous fistulas (CCFs). Symptomatic iCCFs and those with increased risk of hemorrhage should be treated. Transvenous endovascular treatment is the preferred treatment modality. However, in complex cases, a combination of transarterial and transvenous approaches (multimodal treatment) is required.
Intracranial dissecting aneurysms (IDAs) account for 3% of all intracranial aneurysms (IAs) and are usually located in the posterior circulation (PCirc). Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is one of the frequent presenting patterns of this pathology, but it is not usually related to third cranial nerve (CN) palsies. Endovascular therapy (EVT) has proved to be a successful treatment on account of its high occlusion and low morbidity and mortality rates.
Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage is defined as bleeding in brain parenchyma which is lethal at times. Various factor affect the outcome of patient with intracerebral hemorrhage. Aim of this study is to study the clinical outcome of hypertensive supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage and influence of medical and surgical management and to compare the results with literature and assess the volume and location of the hemorrhagic lesion and to correlate with clinical picture and prognosis.
Deficit and thunderclap headache; computed tomography evidenced subarachnoid hemorrhage. An externalventricular drain (EVD) was placed before coiling a saccular aneurysm at the 4th segment of the right vertebralartery at the non-branching site, diagnosed with cerebral angiography. The patient’s clinical conditionsimproved and she was discharged home with excellent functional status. Aneurysms of the non-branchingvertebral artery are rare lesions associated with high morbidity and mortality. Endovascular treatment (EVT)has become an increasingly popular approach for these lesions as a potential and safe treatment option forruptured VA saccular aneurysms.
The current treatment for carotid stenosis includes mainly carotid endarterectomy, which can cause cerebral ischemia related to the procedure. Several methods have been used to control cerebral ischemia during surgery, such as neurocognitive evaluation in wakefulness, electroencephalography (EEG), somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP), transcranial Doppler, carotid muscle pressure and near-infrared spectroscopy. However, there is no consensus on the gold standard or the method that is superior to others currently.
Spinal arteriovenous malformations comprise an uncommon, diverse, and challenging pathological entity. Clinical findings vary according to location and the presence of mass effect, altered blood flow, myelopathy and hemorrhage. Thorough knowledge of the spinal vascular anatomy and pathophysiology is fundamental for a successful diagnostic approach and treatment plan. The objectives of the present study are to describe the angioarchitecture of a group of patients with spinal arteriovenous malformations and to evaluate neurological outcome after treatment.
Scalp cirsoid aneurysms (SCAs) are rare subcutaneous arteriovenous fistulas commonly presenting as growing pulsatile masses. SCAs can cause headache, tinnitus, heart failure, hypovolemic shock (secondary to acute bleeding), skin atrophy/disruption, and scalp morphological changes. Neurological complications are rare. To date, there are no guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of these lesions.
Aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage accounts for 80% of non-traumatic subarachnoid haemorrhage and it is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The clinical status of the patient at admission is probably the single most important predictor of outcome. This study aims to determine the clinical outcome of patients diagnosed with ruptured intracranial aneurysm using grading scores.
Bilateral internal carotid artery chronic occlusion (BICACO) is a rare vascular condition with an unknown incidence. Etiologies vary according to the occluded internal carotid artery (ICA) segments. Moyamoya disease (MMD) is the most common cause of distal/supraclinoid BICACO. BICACO in MMD patients appears at the end-stage of the pathology (Suzuki stage-VI) and usually presents with major neurological deficits and the disappearance of the anterior (ACAs) and middle (MCAs) cerebral arteries.
The cerebrovascular disease (CVD) is the third cause of mortality in first developed countries. For all the types of CVD, the subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is responsible for 22% to 29% of the mortality(1). The physiopathology of the SAH is not yet completely understood, there is a lack of human model behavior related to the events that occur right before and after the blood brain barrier (BBB) disruption(2), mainly in the group of SAH related to intracranial aneurysms (IA).
In the BBB, tight junctions (TJ) play a crucial role on maintenance of the endothelial barrier(3). Therefore the TJ proteins (occludin, claudin 5) and adherent junction proteins (VE-cadherin), had been suggested as disruption markers(3), and, in combination with matrix metalloproteinases MMP2 and 9 constitute the core of the biomarkers to be studied. We add a considered cell death marker which is protein S-100, that had already been studied in CSF concentrations of patients with SAH(4).