Mild head trauma is common in childhood and they often present with normal neurological findings; however, post-traumatic stroke is extremely rare and risk factors are identified in most cases. Ischemic stroke can lead to significant morbidity and mortality and can occur at any age. The nature of this entity and the reasons why this syndrome appears in young children remains unclear.
The prevalence of infant hydrocephalus is roughly one case per 1000 births, but this is probably greater in developing countries. Clinical presentation varies with age and prenatal ultrasound can identify fetal ventriculomegaly.
A spinal epidural haematoma (SEH) is a rare cause of cord compression and most clinicians will never encounter it. However, it is a surgical emergency and clinicians should be aware of it. We present a case of a 13-year-old who presented with acute onset of neurological fallout - i.e. cauda equina syndrome. The MRI revealed a haematoma compressing the cauda equina from nerve root L3 downwards. Laminectomy was done following the MRI and the cauda equina was decompressed. In this case report, we reviewed literature and looked at outcomes in similar cases with emphasis on the importance of urgent decompression and the consequences of delay.
Intervertebral disc herniation is a well-known entity in adults and encountered by most clinicians during their lifetime. However, a clinician will rarely see this in a child – particularly one that is younger than 10 years old. We present a case of L3/L4 lumbar disc herniation (LDH) with nerve root compression in a 1-year-old. It was diagnosed incidentally on MRI - with uncertain aetiology. We reviewed relevant literature and possible aetiologies in young children.
External ventricular drain (EVD) insertion and installation is a common neurosurgical procedure which can be done in both the intensive care unit (ICU) and operating theater, the optimal setting for EVD insertion in regard to safety and accuracy of placement is poorly defined. In this study we would like to reflect our experience in managing Sudanese children with different cranial conditions through EVD; indications, pathologies faced and early outcome.